Heart diseases can be classified as either congenital or acquired. Abnormalities in embryonic development result in congenital heart problems, which perhaps be attributed to heredity, nutritional problems (poor diet) of the pregnant mother, or exposure to viral infections while in the uterus. Congenital heart diseases account for nearly 50 percent of early childhood deaths, and this disease happens in about 3 of every 100 births. Many serious congenital heart defects can be corrected surgically, whereas, others are not of a serious nature.
Heart murmurs are probably either acquired or congenital. Normally, they are of no clinical importance. About 10 percent of all people suffer from heart murmurs, ranging from slight to severe. A septal defect is the most normal kind of congenital heart problem. A failure of the fetal foramen ovale to close at the moment of birth leads to an arterial septal defect, or patent foramen ovale.
The abnormal development of the interventricular septum results in a ventricular septal defect. Cyanosis (bluish coloration) and abnormal heart sounds probably indicate this condition, which perhaps interfere with closure of the AV valves. Pulmonary stenosis probably results in a pulmonary embolism (clot), and is normally recognized by extreme lung congestion, and it is a narrowing of the opening into the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
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