Atherosclerosis seems to be connected with improper diet, (see the preceding Synoptic Spotlight) even though the causes of this disease are still not well known. Smoking, obesity, hypertension, lack of exercise, and heredity also appear to be causative aspects.
Coarctation, aneurysms, and varicose veins are all kinds of vascular disfigurations. Weakening of the tunics results in aneurysms, which perhaps rupture or result in embolisms. An aneurysm is an expansion or bulging of the heart, aorta, or any other artery. Coarctation is a constriction of a segment of a vessel, normally the aorta, and it is usually resulted from the tightening of a remnant of the ductus arteriosus around the vessel.
Varicose veins are weakened veins that become stretched and swollen. For the reason that the force of gravity tends to weaken the valves and overload swollen, they are most usual in the legs. In the rectum, varicose veins can happen as well, in which case they are named hemorrhoids. The inflammation of a vein is phlebitis, which probably develop as a result of trauma or as an aftermath of surgery. Whereas, commonly, it appears for no apparent reason. Phlebitis prevents normal venous blood from flowing.